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Full text of "Poland Russia and Great Britain 1941-1945"

Poland was already in the process of being removed by the Soviets under
the cloak of military service to various parts of Russia. In his speech at
the signing of the agreement, Osubka, the Chairman of the ' Lublin
Committee.,' declared that it had been able to " solve the question which
had for centuries strained the neighbourly relations of the two countries."
On September 13, it was announced in Lublin that the Chairman of
their sponsored Home Council., Boleslaw Bierut, a Russian citizen and
an official of the Comintern, would, under the 1921 Constitution., c'exer-
cise the powers of the President of the Polish Republic for the time being."
In the 1919 election to the Diet, which had elaborated this Polish Constitu-
tion, the Communists had gained two seats out of a total of 444. Yet on
this basis, in 1944 Moscow was claiming a dictatorship in Poland for the
Communists.
Supported by Russian guns and acting as a dictatorial power, the
e Lublin Committee 5 began to change the existing social and economical
order in Poland, preparing it for the introduction of the Soviet regime.
In twenty-one days the e Committee' issued twenty-one decrees to this
end, decrees which over-balanced the foundations of the existing status of
life and totally disorganised it. On July 30 a decree was issued ordering
the confiscation of all real estates owned by the German nationals and
those persons guilty of high treason and undesirable to the new adminis-
trators ; it was a normal procedure of Tsardorn, closely emulated by the
Soviets in any newly acquked territories. As it immediately transpired,
these c traitors * proved to be everyone who was connected with the
Underground.
The c Committee' had no need to prepare so many decrees, for each
one was the replica of those already issued by the Comintern during its
revolutionary practice in various countries. The most characteristic
being that relating to land reform issued on August 18. It was identical
with the one Bela Kuhn had published during his short Bolshevik rule in
Hungary. The reactionary decree, in lofty magnificent phrases which
had no bearing on the existing agrarian position and its possibilities in
that country, promised everything to the peasants of Poland. The sup-
pression of the large estates and their subsequent division among small-
holders was ordered to be carried out within a few weeks, and, since the
nominated Chairman of that reform, Andrzej Witos, failed to execute
this ruin of the agricultural system in the alloted time,, he was sacked on
October ro. In the arena of politics, steps were taken to create sponsored
political parries to act as rivals to those which formed the Polish Govern-
ment in London, particularly the Peasant and Socialist Party. Within
a few weeks the * Committee ' and Moscow were able to state triumphantly
that at the Congress of these Parties in Lublin, the * Committee of National
Liberation,' had been recognised without restriction, etc. But no names
of any outstanding political figure in these two parties were mentioned.
According to the statement of Osubka, Chairman of the Committee3
312